## Electrical

**THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES (NME-309)**

** UNIT-I :**

Thermodynamic equilibrium, cyclic process, enthalpy, Zero, first and second laws of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, concept of entropy, properties of steam, processes involving steam in closed and open systems, Enthalpy.

**Vapour Pressure Cycles: **Rankine cycle, reheat cycle, Regenerative cycle

**UNIT-II:**

**Steam Turbine:**Theoretical approach only of Classification, impulse and reaction turbines their velocity diagrams and related calculations, work done and efficiencies, re-heat factor, staging, bleeding and governing of turbines**.**

**Gas Turbine:**Theoretical approach only of Classification, Brayton cycle, working principle of gas turbine, gas turbine cycle with intercooling, reheat and regeneration, stage and polytrophic efficiencies**.**

** UNIT-III:**

Otto, Diesel .and Dual cycles, introduction to 2-stroke and 4-stroke SI and CI engines.

**UNIT-IV**

**Impact of Jet:**Introduction to hydrodynamic thrust of jet on a fixed and moving surface ( flat and curve).

**Hydraulic Turbines: **Classification, heads and efficiencies, construction, working, work done and efficiency of impulse turbines.

**UNIT-V**

**Centrifugal Pump:**Classification, construction, working.

**Reciprocating Pump: **Classification ,construction, working.

** **

**ELECTRO-MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSION –I (NEE – 301)**

** **

**Unit – I**

**Principles of Electro-mechanical Energy Conversion- **Introduction, Flow of Energy in Electromechanical Devices, Energy in magnetic systems (defining energy & Co-energy), Singly excited systems; Determination of mechanical force, Mechanical energy, Torque equation, Doubly excited Systems; Energy stored in magnetic field, Electromagnetic torque , Generated emf in machines; Torque in machines with cylindrical air gap.

**Unit – II**

**D.C. Machines- **Construction of DC Machines, Armature winding, Emf and torque equations, Armature reaction, Commutation, Interpoles and compensating windings, Performance characteristics of D.C. generators.

**Unit –III**

**D.C. Machines (Contd.)- **Performance characteristics of D.C. motors, Starting of D.C. motors; point and point starters, Speed control of D.C. motors; Field control, Armature control and Voltage control (Ward Lenonard method); Efficiency and Testing of D.C. machines

(Hopkinson’s and Swinburn’s Test).

**Unit – IV**

**Single Phase Transformer- **Phasor diagram, Efficiency and voltage regulation, All day

efficiency.

**Testing of Transformers- **O.C. and S.C. tests, Sumpner’s test, Polarity test.

**Auto Transformer- **Single phase and three phase auto transformers, Volt-amp relation, Efficiency, Merits & demerits and applications.

**Unit – V**

**Three Phase Transformers – **Construction, Three phase transformer, Phasor groups and their connections, Open delta connection, Three phase to 2 phase, 6 phase or 12 phase connections and their applications, Parallel operation of single phase and three phase transformers and load sharing, Excitation phenomenon and harmonics in transformers, Three winding transformers.

**ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENT & MEASURING INSTRUMENTS (NEE-302)**

** UNIT I**

**Philosophy of Measurement- **Methods of measurement, Measurement system**, **Classification of instrument systems, Characteristics of instruments & measurement systems**, **Errors in measurement & its analysis, Standards.

**Analog Measurement of Electrical Quantities- **Electrodynamic, Thermocouple, Electrostatic & Rectifier type ammeters & voltmeters, Electrodynamic wattmeter, Three Phase wattmeter, Power in three phase systems, Errors & remedies in wattmeter and energy meter.

**UNIT II**

Instrument Transformers:CT and PT; their errors, Applications of CT and PT in the extension of instrument range, Introduction to measurement of speed, frequency and power factor.

**UNIT III**

**Measurement of Parameters- **Different methods of measuring low, medium and high resistances**, **measurement of inductance & capacitance with the help of AC Bridges, Q meter.

**UNIT IV**

**AC Potentiometers- **Polar type & Co-ordinate type AC potentiometers, application of AC Potentiometers in electrical measurement.

**Magnetic Measurement- **Ballistic galvanometer, Flux meter**, **Determination of hysteresis loop, measurement of iron losses**. **

**UNIT V**

** Digital Measurement of Electrical Quantities- **Concept of digital measurement, Block diagram, Study of digital voltmeter, Frequency meter, *Spectrum analyzer, *Electronic multimeter.

**Cathode Ray Oscilloscope- **Basic CRO circuit (block diagram), Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) & its components**, **Applications of CRO in measurement, Lissajous Pattern, Dual trace & dual beam oscilloscopes.

**BASIC SYSTEM ANALYSIS (NEE-303)**

** **

**UNIT I**

**Introduction to Continuous Time Signals and Systems- **Basic continuous time signals, Unit step, Unit ramp, Unit impulse and periodic signals with their mathematical representation and characteristics. *Inversion, Shifting and Scaling of signals, *Introduction to various types of

systems, *Causal, Stable, Linear and Time invariant systems. ***Analogous System- **Linear mechanical elements, Force-voltage and force-current analogy, Modeling of mechanical and electro-mechanical systems.

**UNIT II**

**Fourier Transform Analysis- **Exponential form and *compact *trigonometric form of Fourier series, Fourier symmetry, Fourier Transform: Properties, Applications to network analysis.

**UNIT III**

**Laplace Transform- **Review of Laplace Transform, Initial and Final Value theorems, Inverse Laplace Transform, Convolution theorem, Application of Laplace Transform to analysis of networks, Waveform synthesis and Laplace Transform of complex waveforms.

**UNIT IV**

**State – Variable Analysis- **Introduction, State Space representation of linear systems, Transfer Function and State Variables, State Transition Matrix, Solution of State Equations for homogeneous and non-homogeneous systems, Applications of State-Variable technique to the analysis of linear systems.

**UNIT IV**

**Z-Transform Analysis- **Concept of Z-Transform, Z-Transform of common functions, Inverse Z Transform, Initial and Final Value theorems, Applications to solution of difference equations, Pulse Transfer Function.

**ANALOG AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (NEC-409)**

** ANALOG ELECTRONICS:**

**UNIT-I:**

**Special Diodes-**LED, Varactor diode, Photo diode, Schottky diode, Tunnel diode; their characteristics and applications.Transistors as a switch.

**UNIT-II**

**Frequency Response: **Amplifier transfer function, low and high frequency response of common emitter and common source amplifiers.

**Feedback: **General feedback structure; properties of negative feedback; series-series, series-shunt, shunt-series and shunt-shunt feedback amplifiers.

**UNIT-III:**

Basic principle of sinusoidal oscillator, R-C Phase Shift and Wein Bridge oscillators, tuned oscillators-Collpits and Hartley; Crystal oscillator

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS:**

**UNIT-IV**

**Combinational Logic Circuits: **Multiplexers/Demultiplexures, Encoders/Decoders.

**Sequential Logic Circuits: **latches, flip-flops- S-R, T, D, J-K.

**Shift Registers: **Basic principle, serial and parallel data transfer, shift left/right registers, universal shift register.

**Counters: **Mode N Counters, ripple counters, synchronous counters, ring/Johnson counters.

**UNIT-V**

**OP-AMP applications **– Astable, Monostable and Bistable multivibrators, Schmitt trigger, IC-555 Timer, A/D and D/A converters.

**Voltage Regulators: **Series, shunt and switching regulators, op-amp based configurations.

**Memories: **Introduction to ROM, RAM; Sequential Memory, Memory organization.