Definition of fluid, Newton’s law of viscosity, Units and dimensions-Properties of fluids, mass density, specific volume, specific gravity, viscosity, compressibility and surface tension, Incompressible flow, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications – Pitot tube, orifice meter, venturi meter and bend meter, notches and weirs, momentum equation and its application to pipe bends.
Continuum & free molecular flows. Steady and unsteady, uniform and non-uniform, laminar and turbulent flows, rotational and irrotational flows, compressible and incompressible flows, subsonic, sonic and supersonic flows, sub-critical, critical and supercritical flows, one, two- and three dimensional flows, streamlines, continuity equation for 3D and 1D flows, circulation, stream function and velocity potential. Buckingham’s Pi theorem, important dimensionless numbers and their significance.
Equation of motion for laminar flow through pipes, turbulent flow, isotropic, homogenous turbulence, scale and intensity of turbulence, measurement of turbulence, eddy viscosity, resistance to flow, minor losses, pipe in series and parallel, power transmission through a pipe, siphon, water hammer, three reservoir problems and pipe networks. Boundary layer thickness, boundary layer over a flat plate, laminar boundary layer, application of momentum equation, turbulent boundary layer, laminar sublayer, separation and its control, Drag and lift, drag on a sphere, a two-dimensional cylinder, and an aerofoil, Magnus effect.
Introduction to hydrodynamic thrust of jet on a fixed and moving surface, Classification of turbines, Impulse turbines, Constructional details, Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency calculations, Governing of Pelton wheel. Francis and Kaplan turbines, Constructional details, Velocity triangles, Power and efficiency Principles of similarity, Unit and specific speed, Performance characteristics, Selection of water turbines.
Classifications of centrifugal pumps, Vector diagram, Work done by impellor, Efficiencies of centrifugal pumps, Specific speed, Cavitation & separation, Performance characteristics. Reciprocating pump theory, Slip, Indicator diagram, Effect of acceleration, air vessels, Comparison of centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, Performance characteristics